In an industry that uses tubing, pipe ends are a crucial part of the infrastructure. Aside from pipe size, quality, and strength, this component is integral to ensuring that there is no failure in your piping system. 

Pipe ends are irreplaceable in the welding process because they help add to the pipe length and are responsible for the fit between the pipes.

The welding ensures the tightness of the seal to avoid product leakage. In turn, the welding area strength depends on the pipe end type.

Type Of Pipe Ends 

Depending on their design and application, pipe ends can be classified into the following types. 

Pipe ends

Beveled Pipe End (BE)

BE or beveled ends are the most commonly used ends in the market. Aside from its importance in fusing pipe ends, beveling is a popular alternative for safety and aesthetic reasons.

This step is crucial when welding two pipes together because the quality of the beveling contributes to the strength of the welding aa well. An appropriate angle formed at the pipe edge will strengthen the weld joint and vice versa. 

Beveling the ends instead of the option for a 90 degrees plain end allows for a better fusion of the pies. The most common use of beveled ends is in buttwelding, where the end runs of a pipe are cut into specific angles. This shaping allows fittings and flanges to be added over the welded area, adding to the pipe strength.

Beveling pipe ends can be done in several ways, including manual hand grinding and flame cutting or semi-automated processes like lathe turning. However, an automated production method is preferred over these because of the consistent accuracy of the beveled cut. 

Though the standard angle is 35.5 degrees, manufacturers can receive customized requests on their bevel ends. An automated production system can process these orders minimally while posing the least danger to the workers.

Characteristics Of Beveled Ends

  • BE is the industry abbreviation for beveled end pipe. Other abbreviations include; BBE: Bevel Both Ends, BSE: Bevel Small End, BOE: Bevel One End, BLE: Bevel Large Ends, and more.
  • This pipe end is the most commonly used variety in the industry.
  • A 3 to 4 mm gap is maintained between beveled ends during welding.
  • An angle of 37.5 is the industry average for beveling pipe ends; however, this design is open to customization.
  • Beveled end processing is more suited for automatic production because of the accuracy required.
  • Any pipe which is not a plain-ended pipe (PE), i.e., any pipe which does not have a perpendicular 90 degrees end run, can be considered a beveled end pipe.
  • Beveled pipe ends typically have a root face of 1.6 mm.
  • Beveled ends are popular both as a practical as well as an aesthetic option on pipes.
  • Beveled ends are commonly used in buttwelding processes to increase pipe length.
  • Beveled ends are often used alongside buttwelding to help increase the pipe length.

Grooved Pipe End (GR)

Grooved ends are the preferred components to strengthen pipelines of diameter greater than 100mm. The reason for this is that this type of pipe end provides double the protection of usual pipes by combining the ease of use of threaded pipe ends with the strength of an external clamp as used in plain pipe ends.

A grooved pipe end consists of a mechanical joint area formed by a groove at the pipe edge. The two ends of the tubing join and lock in this seated area which contains a gasket to ensure proper sealing. A clam or housing is placed over the pipe area and the grooved ends.

This component strengthens and seals the joined area to ensure optimal leakage protection. This extra layer of strength makes them popular in gas and oil transport.

Like a threaded pipe end, grooved ends also do not require welding as the grooved end fitting and the housing ensures no mishaps without the need for fusing. This system is also easy to assemble and disassemble, making them useful in firefighting pipe systems.

Characteristic Features Of Grooved Pipe Ends

  • Grooved end pipes are easier to disassemble because their design reduces the risk of damaging the rest of the pipe. 
  • Since the system relies on grooved joints and gaskets, there is less risk to the product than with beveled welded or threaded ends.
  • Grooved pipe ends can be preassembled, making them easy to operate in compact spaces.
  • Unlike most pipe ends, grooved pipes require minimal external components. The design allows ensures that no welding is needed.
  • Grooved pipe ends take minimum installation time as they do not have a specific direction for sealing like threaded ends.

Plain Pipe End (PE)

A plain edge pipe end is characterized by a sharp, sudden edge at the end of its pipe run. For a pie to be classified as plain-ended, it must have a cut of 90 degrees running perpendicular to the edge of the pipe. Since this end can't connect directly, pipe nipples, caps, and plugs may be used to join the two pipe ends.

First, a socket weld is usually used to join the two plain pipe ends together; upon connection, a filler material is used to seal and weld the edges together to form one long pipe.

Unlike threaded or grooved ends, this joining is permanent. But for a plain-ended pipe to be connected, it must first be welded together.

Characteristics of Plain Pipe Ends

  • PE is the industry abbreviation for plain end pipe.
  • A pipe can be said to have a plain end with an end angle of 90 degrees.
  • Plain ends are usually used in pipes with smaller diameters.
  • A slight distance of ⅛ of inch is maintained between plain ends to account for expansion caused by heat during the welding process.
  • Pipe attachments like socket welds and slip-on flanges are often used alongside plain pipe ends to join the pipe ends. 

Threaded Pipe End (THD)

Threaded ends are pipes with grooves cut into the ends, whether on the inside or the inside. They are unique from other pipe ends because the pipe can be screwed into each other with minimum extra processing.

Threaded pipe ends are either male or female, as this design is essential to their system. The main difference between the two is that the former has threads on the exterior pipe edge while the latter has the same cuts on the interior pipe edge.

This design allows the male and female pipe ends to fit perfectly during assembly. However, the two threads must be joined properly to avoid damage to the pipe and weld joints. When misassembled, it can use cause the pipe to corrode or seize.

Characteristic Features Of Threaded Pipe Ends

  • TE is the industry abbreviation for threaded end pipes.
  • Threaded ends are typically used in pipes of 3 inches and lesser in diameter.
  • The US standard thread for pipe is the National Pipe Thread (NPT), with a taper of ¾ inch per foot.
  • Threaded pipes do not need welding, gluing, or any special attachment process during assembly. 
  • Also called screwed pipe, the assembly for this pipe is not permanent as for most pipes, as they can be easily screwed and unscrewed.
  • Because of the threaded cuts, these pipes provide a tighter fit, making them less prone to leaks.
  • Threaded pipes are also known as screwed pipes.