The ASTM A252 grade pipe specification is regulated by the American Society of Testing and Materials, and it encompasses both seamless and welded steel pipe types that are utilized in piling actions and services. 

ASTM A252 standard materials of pipes are the most ideally used in pipelines used in buildings and constructions due to their impressive load-bearing capacity.

There are three categories under the class of ASTM A252 pipes, and they comprise Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3. Each of these grades can be distinguished by their particular aspects, which are generally based on chemical composition and mechanical properties.

  1. Product Description

The ASTM A252 pipe grade is a standard piling material that is employed and utilized in the formation of building structures and construction works because of its excellent ability to bear heavy weights. 

The A252 basic specification encompasses grades 1, 2, and 3. Among them, the Grade 3 pipe piling substance is believed to be the most preferred choice among manufacturers and clients.

  1. ASTM A252 Pipe Types

As already mentioned, ASTM A252 grade pipes are manufactured in three types. They are:

  • ASTM A252 Grade 1
  • ASTM A252 Grade 2
  • ASTM A252 Grade 3

Though all three classes of ASTM A252 have their important contributions to the piping industry, the third grade is usually the preferred one.

In this category of piping materials, the pipe functions as a load-carrying product or a surface for cement piles according to ASTM protocols. Additionally, the grades of pipes are manufactured and sold in both seamless and welded categories.

  1. Composition of ASTM A252 Pipe

The composition of ASTM A252 pipe grades is primarily characterized by their chemical composition and mechanical properties. These factors mainly determine the distinguishing factors as well as the quality of the different grades of pipe materials. 

3.1) Chemical Composition of ASTM A252 Grade Pipes

Generally, the chemical composition of pipe materials is based on carbon content along with the amount of other elements present in the material.

That is, however, not the case for ASTM A252. The chemical composition of A252 is about the phosphorus content and limit.

The ASTM A252 grade authorizes only an extent of phosphorus limit at 0.050 percent. The reason for this is phosphorus makes the steel more unstable and likely to crack. Additionally, elevated levels of  P are not favorable for welding procedures.

Pipe TypePhosphorus Content
ASTM A252 (Seamless and Welded)0.050 % (Maximum) 

3.2) Mechanical Properties of ASTM A252 Grade Pipes

The mechanical traits of ASTM A252 pipes are primarily dependable on the tensile strength and yield strength of the materials.

Mechanical Properties of ASTM A252 Grades 1, 2, and 3 (Depending on Tensile Strength)

Mechanical TraitsGrade 1Grade 2Grade 3
Tensile Strength (Min) (psi, Mpa)50,000 psi or345 Mpa60,000 psi or415 Mpa66,000 psi or455 Mpa

Mechanical Properties of ASTM A252 Grades 1, 2, and 3 (Depending on Tensile Strength)

Mechanical TraitsGrade 1Grade 2Grade 3
Yield Strength (Min) (psi, Mpa)30,000 psi or 205 Mpa35,000 psi or 240 Mpa45,000 psi or 310 Mpa

Mechanical Properties of ATM A252 Grades 1, 2, and 3 (Depending on Elongation) 

Mechanical TraitsGrade 1Grade 2Grade 3
Elongation for 2 inches or 50.8 mm (Min, %)302520
Elongation for 8 inches or 203.2 mm (Min, %)1814-
  1. Testing Methods and Requirements

The material assessment for ASTM A252 grade pipes is done by performing a series of tests. They are:

4.1) Tensile Prerequisites 

Values are assembled depending on yield strength and tensile strength. The tensile test is done in either a transverse or longitudinal way, as preferred by the manufacturer. 

One tensile test is performed per two hundred lengths. It is to be pointed out that if it possesses a vague yield point, then the assessment should be done for yield strength conforming to a permanent offset of 0.2 percent of the gauge size of the sample or to analyze a full expansion of 0.5 percent of the gauge size under load.

4.2) Heat Analysis

The heat analysis test for ASTM A252 limits the phosphorus (P) content. The final reports and statements are to be given in MTC to the client or customer.

4.3) Product Analysis

The testing frequency for ASTM A252 is to be accepted by the various pipe diameters. 

The estimates will be two samples per 200 pieces for less than fourteen inches. In case of more than 36 inches, the numbers will be two per 3000 feet. And lastly, for fourteen to thirty-six inches, the quantity will be two samples per 100 pieces.

Note: Since the ASTM A252 pipes are based on cement and concrete buildings, instead of the general gas and liquid transmission, the hydrostatic test is not a necessity for this pipe grade. 

  1. Use and Application of ASTM A252 Grade Pipes

Currently, pipe piling is being expanded to a path with a deep extent and large diameters as the structures, constructions, and bridges are becoming continuously higher. 

And ASTM A252 pipe grade is deemed to be the very best for load-bearing and construction purposes. These pipes possess the capacity to sustain high-quality materials that are distributed to the buyers, guaranteeing great profits.

The steel pipe pile of ASTM A252 grades having a cylindrical shape is ideally suitable for various applications such as:

  • Construction of buildings 
  • Securing walls and structures
  • Formations that require a strong base

This grade of pipes guarantees that the overall construction and layout are made of materials that are the most durable, reliable, and of the highest quality. This, in turn, assures stability and strength that meets and satisfies even global quality standards for piping equipment.

  1. Review

ASTM A252 pipe grade is the nominal standard specification for both seam and less as well as welded steel pipe piles. The pipes are mainly categorized into three grades—1, 2, and 3. Among these three, the ASTM A252 Grade 3 is considered to be the most used.

These grades are primarily based on round pipes that are mainly utilized for piling services, having a substantial part in load bearing. Along with that, ASTM A252 standard steel piling pipes are ideally fitted for usage in the construction of buildings, retaining walls, and other structures that demand strong, durable, and quality materials.